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          TED演講:辣味的科學(2)

          時間:2018-10-24 02:36來源:互聯網 提供網友:mapleleaf   字體: [ ]
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            (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

             The standard measure of a food's spiciness1 is its rating on the Scoville scale, 食物辣度的標準計量方法是借助史高維爾辣度單位測量,

            which measures how much its capsaicin content can be diluted2 before the heat is no longer detectable3 to humans. 方法是不斷稀釋被測物中的辣椒素,直到人感覺不到辣為止,稀釋液體的總和即是被測物的史高維爾辣度單位。
            A sweet bell pepper gets 0 Scoville heat units, while Tabasco sauce clocks in between 1,200-2,400 units. 甜椒的史高維爾辣度單位是0,塔巴斯科辣沙司的辣度單位在1200-2400之間。
            The race to create the hottest pepper is a constant battle, but two peppers generally come out on top: 現在,培植最辣辣椒儼然成為一種國際競賽,
            The Trinidad Moruga Scorpion4 and the Carolina Reaper5. 目前公認最辣的兩種辣椒是千里達莫魯加毒蝎椒和卡羅來納死神辣椒。
            These peppers measure between 1.5 and 2 million Scoville heat units, which is about half the units found in pepper spray. 這兩種辣椒的史高維爾辣度單位在150-200萬之間,相當于一半的辣椒噴霧劑辣度單位。
            So, why would anyone want to eat something that causes such high levels of pain? 為什么有人愿意吃能造成如此巨大痛苦的食物呢?
            Nobody really knows when or why humans started eating hot peppers. 我們無法得知人類最早食用辣椒的時間和原因。
            Archaeologists have found spices like mustard along with human artifacts dating as far back as 23,000 years ago. 考古學家從兩萬三千多年前的古人類器皿中發現了類似芥末的香料。
            But they don't know whether the spices were used for food or medication or just decoration. 但尚不明確這些香料是用作調味、治病,還是僅僅作為裝飾。
            More recently, a 6,000 year old crockpot, lined with charred6 fish and meat, also contained mustard. 最近,考古學家還發現一個六千多年前的瓦罐罐旁有烤魚和烤肉的遺跡罐內有芥末。
            One theory says that humans starting adding spices to food to kill off bacteria. 有觀點認為古人類從這時開始在食物中加入香料以此殺菌。
            And some studies show that spice developed mostly in warmer climates where microbes also happen to be more prevalent. 一些研究顯示,在古代,香料主要生長在氣候較熱的地區而這些地方也更容易滋生細菌。
            But why we continue to subject ourselves to spicy7 food today is still a bit of a mystery. 至于為什么人類到了今天仍對辛辣食物欲罷不能還是個解不開的謎團。
            For some people, eating spicy food is like riding rollercoasters; 對一些人來說吃辛辣的食物就像坐過山車,
            they enjoy the ensuing thrill, even if the immediate8 sensation is unpleasant. 雖然當時最直接的感受并不舒服,但他們非常享受隨之而來的刺激感。
            Some studies have even shown that those who like to eat hot stuff are more likely to enjoy other adrenaline-rich activities, like gambling9. 還有研究顯示喜歡吃辣食的人也更樂于從事其他能激起腎上腺素的活動,比如賭博。
            The taste for spicy food may even be genetic10. 對辛辣食物的喜好程度甚至也有遺傳的因素。
            And if you're thinking about training a bit, to up your tolerance11 for spice, know this: 如果你想訓練得自己更能吃辣,有這么幾條信息跟您分享:
            According to some studies, the pain doesn't get any better.You just get tougher.  一些研究顯示辣帶來的灼燒感從不會減輕。只是吃辣的人的忍耐力提高了。
            In fact, researchers have found that people who like to eat spicy foods don't rate the burn any less painful than those who don't. 研究人員發現喜歡吃辣食的人跟不喜歡吃辣食的人體驗到的辛辣感是一樣的。
            They just seem to like the pain more. 只是喜歡吃辣的人更享受那種灼燒感。
            So, torment12 your heat receptors all you want, but remember, when it comes to spicy food, you're going to get burned. 所以,盡情磨練你的熱覺感受器吧,不過要記住,當你吃辣食的時候大腦會認為你被灼燙了。

          點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

          1 spiciness 5cf89aada610cc2284b271b94db3c95d     
          n.香馥,富于香料;香味
          參考例句:
          • For that extra spiciness, add powdered nutmeg to taste. 至于要得到那種額外的香味,酌量加入肉豆蔻粉。 來自互聯網
          • Aside from a graph a thermometer will be used to show spiciness. 除了文字標記以外,還將用溫度表圖像形象地表達辣度。 來自互聯網
          2 diluted 016e8d268a5a89762de116a404413fef     
          無力的,沖淡的
          參考例句:
          • The paint can be diluted with water to make a lighter shade. 這顏料可用水稀釋以使色度淡一些。
          • This pesticide is diluted with water and applied directly to the fields. 這種殺蟲劑用水稀釋后直接施用在田里。
          3 detectable tuXzmd     
          adj.可發覺的;可查明的
          參考例句:
          • The noise is barely detectable by the human ear.人的耳朵幾乎是察覺不到這種噪音的。
          • The inflection point at this PH is barely detectable.在此PH值下,拐點不易發現。
          4 scorpion pD7zk     
          n.蝎子,心黑的人,蝎子鞭
          參考例句:
          • The scorpion has a sting that can be deadly.蝎子有可以致命的螫針。
          • The scorpion has a sting that can be deadly.蝎子有可以致命的螫針。
          5 reaper UA0z4     
          n.收割者,收割機
          參考例句:
          • The painting is organized about a young reaper enjoying his noonday rest.這幅畫的畫面設計成一個年輕的割禾人在午間休息。
          • A rabbit got caught in the blades of the reaper.一只兔子被卷到收割機的刀刃中去了。
          6 charred 2d03ad55412d225c25ff6ea41516c90b     
          v.把…燒成炭( char的過去式);燒焦
          參考例句:
          • the charred remains of a burnt-out car 被燒焦的轎車殘骸
          • The intensity of the explosion is recorded on the charred tree trunks. 那些燒焦的樹干表明爆炸的強烈。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
          7 spicy zhvzrC     
          adj.加香料的;辛辣的,有風味的
          參考例句:
          • The soup tasted mildly spicy.湯嘗起來略有點辣。
          • Very spicy food doesn't suit her stomach.太辣的東西她吃了胃不舒服。
          8 immediate aapxh     
          adj.立即的;直接的,最接近的;緊靠的
          參考例句:
          • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近鄰認為他們有責任去拜訪。
          • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我們主張立即召開這個會議。
          9 gambling ch4xH     
          n.賭博;投機
          參考例句:
          • They have won a lot of money through gambling.他們賭博贏了很多錢。
          • The men have been gambling away all night.那些人賭了整整一夜。
          10 genetic PgIxp     
          adj.遺傳的,遺傳學的
          參考例句:
          • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遺傳性疾病治療起來很困難。
          • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每個子細胞可以收到遺傳信息的一個完全補償物。
          11 tolerance Lnswz     
          n.寬容;容忍,忍受;耐藥力;公差
          參考例句:
          • Tolerance is one of his strengths.寬容是他的一個優點。
          • Human beings have limited tolerance of noise.人類對噪音的忍耐力有限。
          12 torment gJXzd     
          n.折磨;令人痛苦的東西(人);vt.折磨;糾纏
          參考例句:
          • He has never suffered the torment of rejection.他從未經受過遭人拒絕的痛苦。
          • Now nothing aggravates me more than when people torment each other.沒有什么東西比人們的互相折磨更使我憤怒。
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